Links

Here you will find our favourite sites and information on Nubian goats, hatching eggs, raising heritage chickens, Indian Runner ducks, African geese and heritage turkeys.

Disclaimer: Theses sites are here for personal viewing and information but we are not responsible for their content or functionality. 

PERMACULTURE  (“permanent agriculture”)
Permaculture: You’ve Heard of It, But What the Heck Is It? https://modernfarmer.com/2016/04/permaculture/

The Permaculture Principles using David Holmgren’s 12 principle version. which are used to help guide every Permaculture design. This presentation is by Andrew Millison and is part of Oregon State University’s Permaculture Design Certificate Course.  There are many more videos on permaculture design by Andrew Millision online at OSU. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mwRAf3z9ag

In the early 90s, Mark and Jen Shepard bought a degraded corn farm in Viola, Wisconsin, and began to slowly convert it from row-crops back to a native oak savanna that would become one of the most productive perennial farms in the country. Man Buys Degraded Corn Farm, Plants 250,000 Trees, Turns It Into 0ne Of The Most Productive Perennial Farms In The Country… – Eco Snippets

Geoff Lawton is a world renowned Permaculture consultant, designer and teacher. He first took his Permaculture Design Certificate (PDC) Course in 1983 with Bill Mollison the founder of Permaculture.  Inspiring people to care for each other and the earth through permaculture design, education, and demonstration. (20+) Discover Permaculture with Geoff Lawton | Facebook

Permaculture Design for Slope    Permaculture Design by Sectors (respond to change) 

Stefan Sobkowiak is an educator, biologist and master of landscape architecture. Miracle Farms – Stefan Sobkowiak – Permaculture Apprentice

THE KEY to YOUR Permaculture Orchard or Fruit Planting is….. “JUST START” by Stefan Sobkowiak

BREEDER ASSOCIATIONS, CLUBS AND SHOWS:

Canadian National Goat Federation: New ID and Traceability Project for 2018

http://cangoats.com/

Canadian Goat Society: https://www.goats.ca/

Anglo Nubian Goat Society (how to measure and weigh stock etc.)
http://www.anglonubiangoatsociety.com/

International Nubian Breeders Association: http://www.i-n-b-a.org/

American Poultry Association: http://www.amerpoultryassn.com

Marans of America Club: http://www.maransofamericaclub.com

Ameraucana Breeders Club: http://ameraucanabreedersclub.org/

Vernon Pigeon and Poultry Club: http://www.vppc.ca

Poultry Show Abbreviations: http://www.poultryshowcentral.com/Abbreviations.html

PoultryShowCentral.com (information, record keeping, shows, dates and locations)

http://www.poultryshowcentral.com/Canada.html

“HEN POWER PROJECT” It encourages the elderly to become involved in the day-to-day raising, care, feeding, eggs, etc. of hens.

http://www.programsforelderly.com/social-henpower-initiative-equal-arts.php

GOAT SITES: Recommended readings before purchasing a goat. 

https://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/livestock/goat/pubs/goats-and-their-nutrition.pdf
The nutrient requirements of goats are determined by age, sex, breed, production system (dairy or
meat), body size, climate and physiological stage.

https://thriftyhomesteader.com/goat-minerals/
When some people get started with goats, they may overlook a very important aspect of their care by failing to provide free-choice, loose goat minerals.

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency in Goats – Grit | Rural American Know-How
Please understand that proper goat nutrition is extremely complex. The addition of free choice goat minerals is just the beginning! 

Supplemental Feed for Your Goats – dummies
Goats need supplemental minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients in addition to those they get in their hay, grain, and browse. Vitamins and minerals are essential to keeping goats healthy, making sure they’re growing well, and assisting in reproduction and the development of skin and bone.

  • Black oil sunflower seeds (BOSS): Black oil sunflower seeds contain vitamin E, zinc, iron, and selenium and also add fiber and fat to the diet. BOSS make the goats’ coats shinier and increase the butterfat in their milk. Mix the seeds into your goats’ grain; they eat them shell and all.

  • Kelp meal: Kelp meal is a good source of iodine, selenium, and other minerals. Used as a supplement, it helps protect goats from iodine deficiency. Kelp also improves dairy goats’ production, increasing milk volume and butterfat and helping decrease mastitis.

  • Baking soda: Many goat owners offer their goats free-choice baking soda, which aids digestion by keeping the rumen pH-balanced. If one of your goats has a digestive problem, offer baking soda.

Keeping Flocks Healthy-Sheep and Goats https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/farming-natural-resources-and-industry/agriculture-and-seafood/agriservicebc/webinars/sheep_and_goat_manual.pdf

Goat Health and Biosecurity http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/goat/health.html

Best Management Practices to Control Internal Parasites in Small Ruminates
https://www.wormx.info/bmps

Benefits of Raising Goats: (The Spruce)
https://www.thespruce.com/benefits-of-raising-goats-3016471

Goat minerals: why, what, and how: https://thriftyhomesteader.com/goat-minerals/

Beginner’s Guide to Raising Goats: https://thriftyhomesteader.com/a-beginners-guide-to-goats/

Goat Keeper Magazine: http://www.goatkeeper.ca/home.html

Goddard Farm in the USA – Herd Management (includes lots of info on treating parasites,  housing, feeding, kidding, showing and cheese making etc. for Nubian Goats):
http://www.goddardfarm.com/herd_management

Fias Co Farm – Breeding Does/Goat Health and Husbandry :

http://fiascofarm.com/goats/breeding.htm#breeding

Goat Link (goat information, care, meds, etc.) http://www.goat-link.com/

Goat World (INTERACTIVE PREGNANCY CALCULATOR, kidding info, care, etc. ) 

http://www.goatworld.com/
Interactive Goat Pregnancy Calculator – Articles – GOATWORLD.COM

How to Make Kidding Happen During Daylight Hours (On Pasture)

https://onpasture.com/2018/01/08/how-to-make-lambing-kidding-and-calving-happen-during-daylight-hours/

How to Tell When Your Goat Will Kid

https://www.dummies.com/home-garden/hobby-farming/raising-goats/how-to-tell-when-your-goat-will-kid/

https://goatspots.com/articles/bottle-feeding/

Livestock Winter Hay Needs – Hay Calculator

https://tractortoolsdirect.com/livestock-winter-hay-needs-hay-calculator/?fbclid=IwAR0rHFcuV7QSTGapR5xz4zpvDkClJBzMEV05KcKbP1KqehDjMcKIoPOa7_k

Goat Milk: The Most Complete Food Known/Diary Goat Journal (countrysidenetwork.com)

http://countrysidenetwork.com/daily/livestock/goats/goat-milk/

Bramble Berry® Soap Making Supplies

https://www.brambleberry.com/


The Livestock Feed That Grows Even During Droughts: (Off The Grid News)
Goats are champion brush-eaters, and they naturally prefer browsing to grazing.
“Do not feed branches from stone fruit trees (peach, plum, cherry, apricot nectarine), yew, poison sumac, mountain laurel, or any type of laurel or rhododendron.”
http://www.offthegridnews.com/how-to-2/the-livestock-feed-that-grows-even-during-droughts/

 A chicken and a rooster with all their body parts explained.

CHICKEN BREEDS:

Poultry Pedia (Poultry breeds, weights and chicken care):

https://sites.google.com/a/poultrypedia.com/poultrypedia/poultry-body-weights

Henderson’s Handy Dandy Chicken Chart:

http://www.sagehenfarmlodi.com/chooks/chooks.html

CHICK AND CHICKEN CARE:

Brooding Temperatures for Small Poultry Flocks https://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture

Busting 7 Myths About Medicated Chick Starters
(Wild Acres uses medicated chick starter)
https://backyardpoultry.iamcountryside.com/feed-health/busting-7-myths-about-medicated-chick-starters/

Coccidia + Coccidiosis | Natural Prevention and Treatment for Chicks and Chickens

https://www.fresheggsdaily.blog/2013/11/coccidia-coccidiosis-natural-prevention.html

The Chicken Chick: Baby Chick Basics. What You Need to Know to Get Started

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/2012/03/baby-chick-basics-what-you-need-to-know.html

The Chicken Chick: Feeding Chickens at Different Ages

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/feeding-chickens-at-different-ages/

The Chicken Chick: 5 Common Problems in Chicks with Solutions

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/2014/01/5-common-problems-in-baby-chicks-with.html

How to make a simple nipple waterer for your chick brooder

http://www.thegardencoop.com/blog/2013/03/30/nipple-waterer-for-chicks/

How To Integrate New Chickens Into Your Flock (and juveniles birds)

https://vjppoultry.com/2018/04/13/how-to-integrate-new-chickens-into-your-flock/

FEEDING CHICKENS:


Feeding Whole Grains to Chickens-Maine Organic Farmers

http://www.mofga.org/Publications

Basic Feeding Programs for Small Chicken Flocks: Manitoba Agriculture
(organic, grains, egg size, brooding, pastured poultry etc.)

https://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/livestock/production/poultry/index.html

A high energy chicken treat your flock will love : Poultry Protein Platter.

https://www.raising-happy-chickens.com/chicken-treat.html

https://www.thespruce.com/simple-bird-suet-recipe-386579  We like to feed suet to our hens in the winter. This it a good recipe for making your own homemade suet.

Mixing up grains, legumes, and seeds for my homemade chicken feed  Garden Betty’s Homemade Whole Grain Chicken Feed

Backyard Poultry Magazine 10 Tips for Fermenting Chicken Feed

POULTRY MANAGEMENT:
Heritage Chicken Breeds Are Disappearing and Here’s Why They Are Worth Saving
https://www.wideopenpets.com/are-heritage-chicken-breeds-worth-saving/

20 Reasons Your Chickens Aren’t Laying Eggs: Lisa Steele’s (FreshEggsDaily.com)

http://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2012/11/why-arent-my-chickens-laying-eggs.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yGcM93-XYo
(same list but discussed by Justin Rhodes)

Why Have My Chickens Stopped Laying Eggs?

https://www.facebook.com/152780664753583/posts/3818787081486238/

It’s a mystery you CAN solve: Which Hens are Laying Eggs:

http://vomitingchicken.com/solve-the-mystery-which-hens-are-laying/

How to Stop Chickens from Eating Their Own Eggs 

http://www.typesofchicken.com/chicken-keeping/egg-eater-flock-heres-stop/

7 Reasons to Hang Chicken Nesting Box Curtains – Backyard Poultry

How to Get Dark Orange Yolks From Your Backyard Chickens – Garden Betty

Dropping Boards, because Poop Happens (Chicken Chick)

https://the-chicken-chick.com/droppings-boards-because-poop-happens/?fbclid=IwAR0KLgrwYjmLEbFe9E4D9qH8p4XXH77GhRYY0KZ7ZR5Vdr7CieCNaI2fcrA

Top 10 Tips for Keeping Chickens in Winter (The Spruce)

https://www.thespruce.com/keep-chickens-in-winter-3016590

Cold Weather Chickens – 8 things to NOT to do in the winter (My Pet Chicken Blog)

http://blog.mypetchicken.com/2012/11/16/cold-weather-chickens-8-things-not-to-do/

7 Surefire Tips and Tricks for Keeping Your Chickens Healthy Through Winter – Garden Betty

How to Make a Chicken Apron or Hen Saddle:
-to protect a favourite hen from the over zealous rooster and or a chicken or turkey that is molting or getting picked on.

https://weallsew.com/how-to-make-a-chicken-apron-or-hen-saddle/

Image result for hen apron pattern

Molting Hens – Everything you need to know

https://ohlardy.com/molting-hens-everything-need-know/

HOLISTIC POULTRY PRACTICES:
https://www.fresheggsdaily.blog/2012/11/the-all-natural-chicken-first-aid-kit.html

The Benefits of Black Oil Sunflower Seeds | Beginning Farmers

How to Make Homemade Electrolytes for Chickens

http://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2017/05/how-to-make-homemade-electrolytes-for.html

Poultry Probiotics Can Help Keep Your Flock Healthy
… like sauerkraut, apple cider vinegar, cheese, sour cream and, famously, yogurt https://backyardpoultry.iamcountryside.com/feed-health/the-scoop-on-using-prebiotics-and-probiotics-for-chickens/

Cut Your Chickens Feed Bill by Fermenting

https://permaculturenews.org/2016/06/20/cut-your-chickens-feed-bill-by-fermenting/

Homemade Suet: A Warming Winter Chicken Treat

http://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2013/01/homemade-suet-warming-chicken-treat.html

http://www.theprairiehomestead.com/2016/01/homemade-suet-cakes.html

Fresh Eggs Daily with Lisa Steele: Spice Up your Chicken Keeping for Better Flock Health http://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2015/05/spice-up-your-chicken-keeping-for.html

The Benefits of Garlic, Cayenne and Apple Cider Vinegar for Your Flock http://naturalchickenkeeping.blogspot.ca/2013/06/the-benefits-of-garlic-cayenne-and.html

Chicken Heat Stress, Dehydration and Homemade Electrolyte Solution
http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/2012/07/chicken-heat-stress-dehydration-and/
In summary, during high heat conditions, baking soda facilitates calcium absorption while vinegar inhibits it.  SKIP the vinegar in the heat, opting for an electrolyte solution instead.

Hot Weather, Acidosis and a Homemade Electrolyte Recipe http://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2012/07/hot-weather-acidosis-and-homemade.html
Temperatures between 55-75F (12.77-23.88C) are optimal, anything higher starts to cause stress to their bodies.

An unlikely alternative to antibiotics: cayenne, sage, and cinnamon (The New Food Economy)   
http://newfoodeconomy.com/alternative-antibiotics-spice-rack/

Apple Cider Vinegar and Diatomaceous Earth Benefits

https://poultrykeeper.com/health-suppliments/apple-cider-vinegar/

https://thefrugalchicken.com/charcoal-chickens-healthy-backyard-flock/

Lavender Mint Coop Refresh Spray for your Coop and Home

https://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2012/10/lavender-mint-coop-refresh-spray.html

Holistic Hen – Organic Poultry: https://holistic-hen.blogspot.ca/

Preparedness Mama: Creating a Chicken Habitat, Fermenting Feed, Growing Fodder etc.   http://preparednessmama.com/raising-backyard-chickens/


https://hensandhoney.wordpress.com/2014/01/04/dreaming-of-a-green-winter-growing-sprouts-for-your-chickens-or-yourself/


https://www.attainable-sustainable.net/grow-chicken-feed/

https://www.reformationacres.com/2016/01/12-perennials-plant-free-chicken-food.html

    North Country Farmer

One of the most attractive things about the Siberian Peashrub is its potential as a source for chicken feed. The seeds of this plant are 36% protein and contain 12% fatty oils.

38 Plants To Grow For Chicken Feed
https://thehomesteadinghippy.com/top-10-plants-to-grow-for-chicken-feed/

Herbs for Hens (see also pasture mixes for poultry in links to same article)

https://www.chickens.allotment-garden.org/keeping-chickens/feeding-chickens/grass-seed-mix-chickens-poultry-pasture/

Chicken Powered Permaculture Design for Permaculture Gardens, Farming and Food Forests
https://small-farm-permaculture-and-sustainable-living.com/chicken-powered-permaculture-design/

https://small-farm-permaculture-and-sustainable-living.com/apple-cider-vinegar/

https://small-farm-permaculture-and-sustainable-living.com/seed_balls/

12 Chicken-Friendly Plants To Grow Next To Coops and the Ones to Avoid:
https://insteading.com/blog/chicken-friendly-plants/

GROWING CHICKEN FEED THE EASY WAY: (Grownetwork)
-includes lists of plants

https://thegrownetwork.com/how-to-grow-happier-chickens-and-healthier-eggs-from-seed/

Plantain has traditionally been used as a medicinal herb for treatment of many diseases. High amounts of vitamins A and C and is also a rich source of calcium. Showed promise as an effective means of controlling invasion by Eimeria tenella, the organism responsible for causing coccidiosis in chickens.

http://www.poultrydvm.com/supplement/plantain?fbclid=IwAR26Vdn2DgKzZ85Rb_apeNmD6edAc5ggyqHGaldDfuV0Y5xa3pT7HSowdBw

8 Top Vines to Grow on Your Chicken Coop
https://www.tillysnest.com/2017/03/vines-grow-backyard-chickens/

Herbs for Chicken Nesting Boxes

https://www.theprairiehomestead.com/2015/08/herbs-nesting-boxes.html?fbclid=IwAR2Mf-lqOvWYklZ_914-EDYLvBdcgpEmNPB9XW7OteBgeHb-KjzxqJolAow

Using Chicken Manure Fertilizer In Your Garden

Raising Backyard Chickens:
https://www.fix.com/blog/raising-chickens-at-home/

Raising Backyard Chickens: The Chicken from a Holistic Perspective

CHICKEN HEALTH, WORMING AND DISEASES:

Answers to Ten Common Questions about Chicken Health

https://www.dummies.com/home-garden/hobby-farming/raising-chickens/answers-to-ten-common-questions-about-chicken-health/

Watch Out for Roost Mites: (and other Practical Poultry Tips from Robert Plamondon)

Watch Out for Roost Mites

Battling Chicken Mites with Bags of Brimstone

https://entomologytoday.org/2016/07/18/battling-chicken-mites-with-bags-of-brimstone/

Worm, Mite, & Lice All In One Treatment For Chickens & Quail Ivermectin (video on how to apply Ivermectin to your chicken

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ExaWa2NG6M

 
To get rid of lice, mites and most internal worms use Noromectin. Get the oil based one and place a few drops on bare skin of the chicken such as under the wing, below the vent area, on the back or neck. Works for approx. 3-5 months. Do not eat eggs for a week or more. A good time is during the winter molt. Use with an eye dropper or small syringe.

The Chicken Vet (identify the mites, lice etc. and what to use to get rid of them- use of ivermectin etc.)

http://www.chickenvet.co.uk/health-and-common-diseases/mites-lice/index.aspx

Preventing and Treating Wry Neck in Chicks and Ducklings: (Fresh Eggs Daily)

http://www.fresheggsdaily.com/2014/04/preventing-and-treating-wry-neck-in.html?m=1

How to Treat Frostbite in Chickens: http://www.poultrydvm.com/condition/frostbite

http://www.wikihow.com/Treat-Frostbite-in-Chickens

Scaly Leg Mites in Chickens and Treatments: (The Chicken Chick)

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/2013/03/scaly-leg-mites-in-chickens.html

Bumblefoot in Chickens: Causes and Treatment with video clip (Chicken Chick)

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/search?q=bumble+foot

Bumble Foot Repair videos- part 1 & 2 (Vivienne Morgan- Facebook)

The Poultry Site Quick Disease Guide: ( The Poultry Site has many articles on poultry care)  http://www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/

Worming Chickens and Other Poultry: (ie geese & pheasants) Poultry Keeper.com

https://poultrykeeper.com/general-chickens/worming-chickens/

Chicken Diseases: Prevention and Diagnosis (Raising Chickens-a Guide to Everything Chicken) http://www.raising-chickens.org/chicken-diseases.html

Chicken Diseases You Need To Know About
https://farmingmybackyard.com/chicken-diseases/

Medications, Vaccines, Diagnostic Disease Chart (www.poultrysupplies.com)

http://www.poultrysupplies.com/index_files/Page398.htm


BREEDING POULTRY:

Image result for ameraucana willow colourRelated image

Extensive Helpful Diagrams, poultry parts, charts, and lots of reading on breeding 

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/343605/diagrams-poultry-parts-charts-and-lots-of-reading-updated-nov-13th

Ongoing Selection of Breeding Stock- Law Of Ten (American Livestock Breeds Conservancy) http://www.albc-usa.org/documents/ALBCchicken_assessment-3.pdf

UK AG Poultry Extension: Poultry/Turkey/Waterfowl/Pigeons Breeding (Links or Interests) http://www2.ca.uky.edu/smallflocks/Breeding.html

GMS11: Breeding for Type (Scratch Cradle/Genetics Mini-Series)

https://scratchcradle.wordpress.com/2012/09/09/gms11-breeding-for-type/

Ongoing Selection of Breeding Stock (The Livestock Conservancy)

https://livestockconservancy.org

Principals of Selective Inbreeding by W.A. Watmough http://web.archive.org/web

Using the Clan Mating System (www.TheModernHomestead.US )
-Harvey and Ellen Ussery
http://www.themodernhomestead.us/article/Clan+Mating.html

Watch “Genetics of colour and pattern in chickens” on YouTube

https://youtu.be/vWq_4t4LNLQ

Hobby Poultry: The Barred Gene

https://www.hobbypoultry.com/the-barred-gene-use-in-chickens/?

4-H Comparative Judging

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MJnWocWC-A&feature=youtu.be

Exhibition Poultry (helpful guide for 4-H and everyone else-includes breeds and categories) http://www.bantamclub.com/PDF/4-H%20Poultry.pdf

Punnett Squares help us determine the probability of inheriting a specific trait. #punnettsquare #genetics

Punnett Squares help us determine the probability of inheriting a specific trait. #punnettsquare #genetics:

HISTORICAL:

Historical: Feeding For Eggs 1909 – Dryden, James; Oregon Agricultural College.

http://hdl.handle.net/1957/3401

EC1441 Revised 1932 Practical Poultry Equipment  J.H. Claybaugh

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3567&context=extensionhist

EC1421 Revised 1938 Judging Six Common Varieties of Chickens H. E. Alder

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3551&context=extensionhist

Book: Practical Poultry Raising (Peace Corps, 1981, 225 p.)  http://www.nzdl.org/

Book: Breeding Poultry Records: Lippincott, William Adams 1882-1931 

https://archive.org/details/poultrybreedingr299lipp

History through the eyes of a chicken (TED-Ed)

https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=297893410805369

WATERFOWL SITES:

Feeding Ducklings https://poultrykeeper.com/keeping-ducks-faq/feeding-ducklings/

Dave Holderread is the author of several books. Holderread Waterfowl Farm & Preservation Center at www.holderreadfarm.com. They have enjoyed raising and studying domestic geese and ducks continuously since 1961.  How to Raise Ducks in Your Backyard – Backyard Poultry (iamcountryside.com)

GEESE BREEDER FLOCK MANAGEMENT http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4359e/y4359e08.htm#bm08

Chapter 14. GOOSE DISEASES (Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF DISEASE

http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4359E/y4359e0g.htm

Treating Angel Wing : (DVM)

http://www.duckdvm.com/condition/angel-wing?fbclid=IwAR1w8XvhuzC2ENKnMqFt_kOo-gffje3rAraDTsCzv2-eKSV4K1UtDEat04M

Celebrating the Goose: Raising Geese (Hobby Farms)

http://www.hobbyfarms.com/celebrating-the-goose-raising-geese-3/

Duck Eggs vs Chicken Eggs

http://www.localharvest.org/blog/16682/entry/duck_eggs_vs_chicken_eggs

A Guide to Common Duck Diseases (Domestic Duck Breeds Don’t Get Sick Often)

https://backyardpoultry.iamcountryside.com/feed-health/a-guide-to-common-duck-diseases/?

HATCHING EGGS AND EGG SITES:

Chicken Chick: information on fertile and developing eggs with lots of colourful detailed photos
https://the-chicken-chick.com/facts-and-myths-about-fertile-eggs/
https://the-chicken-chick.com/chicken-embryo-development-views-from/

Hatching Shipped Eggs by Elizabeth White via Cheryl Shires

https://www.facebook.com/notes/friends-with-fowl/hatching-shipped-eggs-by-elizabeth-white-via-cheryl-shires/548615281826504

How to Hatch Chicken Eggs- Learn How to Take Care of Baby Chicks Before They’ve Hatched

http://countrysidenetwork.com/daily/poultry/chickens-101/how-to-hatch-chicken-eggs/

Incubating chicken eggs : your questions answered.

https://www.raising-happy-chickens.com/incubating.html

Hatching for Success ( The Livestock Conservancy)

https://livestockconservancy.org/images/uploads/docs/PoultryIncubation.pdf

The Importance of Humidity and Candling your Eggs: (EggToChick.com)

http://www.eggtochick.com/2014/02/27/the-importance-of-humidity-and-candling-your-eggs/

Chicken Embryo Development (www.PoultryHub.org)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PedajVADLGw

Hatching Chicks and Ducklings

http://www.small-farm-permaculture-and-sustainable-living.com/hatching_chickens.html

A chick with spraddle leg and a chick with bandaged legs.

How to Spot Problems of Newly Hatched Chicks Chicken Health For Dummies

https://www.dummies.com/home-garden/hobby-farming/raising-chickens/how-to-spot-problems-of-newly-hatched-chicks/

Egg Color Chart – Find Out What Egg Color Your Breed Lays (Backyard Chickens)

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/egg-color-chart-find-out-what-egg-color-your-breed-lays

How an Egg is Made https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_D1qTNDyJc